History of AI

  • • In 1950, English mathematician Alan Turing wrote a landmark paper titled “Computing Machinery and Intelligence” that asked the question: “Can machines think?”
  • • Further work came out of a 1956 workshop at Dartmouth sponsored by John McCarthy. In the proposal for that workshop, he coined the phrase a “study of artificial intelligence”
  • • 1943                McCulloch & Pitts: Boolean circuit model of brain
  • • 1950                Turing's "Computing Machinery and Intelligence"
  • • 1956                Dartmouth meeting: "Artificial Intelligence" adopted
  • • 1952—69         Look, Ma, no hands!
  • • 1950s              Early AI programs, including Samuel's checkers program, Newell & Simon's Logic Theorist, Gelernter's Geometry Engine
  • • 1965                Robinson's complete algorithm for logical reasoning
  • • 1966—73         AI discovers computational complexity, Neural network research almost disappears
  • • 1969—79         Early development of knowledge-based systems
  • • 1980                AI becomes an industry
  • • 1986                Neural networks return to popularity
  • • 1987                AI becomes a science
  • • 1995                The emergence of intelligent agents