• Turing machines inspired the construction of the first computers, which were based on the von-Neumann architecture.

• Here, digital memory stores the program and data, including the machine state.

• A Central Processing Unit (CPU) sequentially executes individual instructions in the program through memory read and write operations.

• This fundamental architecture is still shared by most of today’s computers.

**Can Machines Think?**

• So Turing asked: “Can machines think?” He felt that such machines would eventually be constructed.

• But he also realized a bigger problem. How would we know if we’ve succeeded?

**Turing test**

A test to empirically determine whether a computer has achieved intelligence

In a Turing test, the interrogator must determine which respondent is the computer and which is the human.

• Passing the Turing Test does not truly show that the machine was thinking. It simply shows that it generated behavior consistent with thinking.

• Weak equivalence: the two systems (human and computer) are equivalent in results (output), but they do not necessarily arrive at those results in the same way

• Strong equivalence: the two systems use the same internal processes to produce results