Building Blocks of IoT

    An IoT system comprises of a number of functional blocks that provide the system the capabilities for identification, sensing, actuation, communication, and management. These functional blocks are described as follows:

    Hardware Components

    IoT Networking


  • A “thing” has to communicate with other “things” to perform some task.
  • The Role of Communications
  •         • Providing a data link between two nodes

  • Communication type:
  •         • Wireline (e.g. copper wires, optical fibers)

            • Wireless (e.g. RF, IR). RF-based communication is the most popular choice

  • Popular RF-based communication solutions:
  •         • IEEE 802.15.4

            • IEEE 802.11 (or Wifi)

            • Bluetooth

            • Near Field Communication (NFC), e.g. RFID


  • The Roles of Networks
  •         • Managing nodes (discovery, join, leave, etc).

            • Relaying data packets from the source to the destination node in the network.

  • Networks are a distributed system. All nodes need to perform networking related tasks.
  • RF-based Network in IoT is usually a Wireless Multi-hop Network. Some examples:
  •         • Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)

            • Mobile Wireless Ad hoc Networks (MANETs)

            • Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs)

            • Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs)

            • and others...

  • Main concern: Reliability & Performance
  • Internet

  • The Internet serves as a wide area networking for a local network.
  • The Internet uses TCP/IP. This implies that things must also support TCP/IP.
  • Gateway (or sink)
  •        • For a practical deployment, a gateway is often needed in a network.

           • It offers relaying packets between the network and the Internet.

    Protocol Stack