An IoT system comprises of a number of functional blocks that provide the system the capabilities for identification, sensing, actuation, communication, and management. These functional blocks are described as follows:
• Providing a data link between two nodes
• Wireline (e.g. copper wires, optical fibers)
• Wireless (e.g. RF, IR). RF-based communication is the most popular choice
• IEEE 802.15.4
• IEEE 802.11 (or Wifi)
• Near Field Communication (NFC), e.g. RFID
• Managing nodes (discovery, join, leave, etc).
• Relaying data packets from the source to the destination node in the network.
• Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)
• Mobile Wireless Ad hoc Networks (MANETs)
• Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs)
• Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs)
• and others...
• For a practical deployment, a gateway is often needed in a network.
• It offers relaying packets between the network and the Internet.