Syntax of for Loop
for val in sequence: Body of forHere, val is the variable that takes the value of the item inside the sequence on each iteration. Loop continues until we reach the last item in the sequence. The body of for loop is separated from the rest of the code using indentation.
Example: Python for Loop
# Program to find # the sum of all numbers # stored in a list # List of numbers numbers = [6,5,3,8,4,2,5,4,11] # variable to store the sum sum = 0 # iterate over the list for val in numbers: sum = sum+val # print the sum print("The sum is",sum) Output The sum is 48The range() function We can generate a sequence of numbers using range() function. range(10) will generate numbers from 0 to 9 (10 numbers). We can also define the start, stop and step size as range(start,stop,step size). step size defaults to 1 if not provided. This function does not store all the values in memory, it would be inefficient. So it remembers the start, stop, step size and generates the next number on the go. To force this function to output all the items, we can use the function list(). The following example will clarify this.
>>> range(10) range(0, 10) >>> list(range(10)) [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9] >>> list(range(2,8)) [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7] >>> list(range(2,20,3)) [2, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17]We can use the range() function in for loops to iterate through a sequence of numbers. It can be combined with the len() function to iterate though a sequence using indexing. Here is an example.
# Program to iterate # through a list # using indexing # List of genre genre = ['pop','rock','jazz'] # iterate over the list using index for i in range(len(genre)): print("I like",genre[i]) Output I like pop I like rock I like jazz
for loop with elseA for loop can have an optional else block as well. The else part is executed if the items in the sequence used in for loop exhausts. break statement can be used to stop a for loop. In such case, the else part is ignored. Hence, a for loop's else part runs if no break occurs. Here is an example to illustrate this.
# Program to show # the control flow # when using else block # in a for loop # a list of digit list_of_digits = [0,1,2,3,4,5,6] # take input from user input_digit = int(input("Enter a digit: ")) # search the input digit in our list for i in list_of_digits: if input_digit == i: print("Digit is in the list") break else: print("Digit not found in list") Output 1 Enter a digit: 3 Digit is in the list Output 2 Enter a digit: 9 Digit not found in listHere, we have a list of digits from 0 to 6. We ask the user to enter a digit and check if the digit is in our list or not. If the digit is present, for loop breaks prematurely. So, the else part does not run. But if the items in our list exhausts (digit not found in our list), the program enters the else part.